Oxford ’s main doctoral research degree is called a DPhil (our name for the PhD), and usually takes between three and four years to complete. Working closely with an academic supervisor who will oversee your studies, you will focus on a specific research project to produce a thesis that represents a significant and substantial piece of work.
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The earliest Western alchemists, who lived in the first centuries of the common era, invented chemical apparatus. The bain-marie , or water bath is named for Mary the Jewess . Her work also gives the first descriptions of the tribikos and kerotakis.  Cleopatra the Alchemist described furnaces and has been credited with the invention of the alembic .  Later, the experimental framework established by Jabir ibn Hayyan influenced alchemists as the discipline migrated through the Islamic world , then to Europe in the twelfth century.
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